Particle of a new era
Searches " a divine particle " are finished — in a staff - apartment of the European organisation on nuclear researches CERN declared a find bozona Higgsa
Darkness has fallen on a hall, but professor Fabiola Dzhanotti, head kollaboratsii ATLAS groups of the scientists working on one of detectors Big adronnogo kollajdera, has clicked the switch, and the laser projector has highlighted on the big screen the image of a certain schedule it would seem, a usual sinusoid. But around a mark " 125 " on an axis of abscisses the curve sharply and confidently soared up upwards, crossing a dotted line, and, probably, this soar was so important that professor Dzhanotti has led round this site of the schedule on a slide a red marker. Also has put nearby fat exclamation point. Second - another gathered in the big hall a staff - apartments of the European organisation on nuclear researches CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire) zacharovanno looked at this red circle, and then the hall has blown up a mad applause. Grey-haired academicians have jumped on feet, amicably greeting 83 - summer physicist Peter Higgsa who almost has foretold 50 years ago existence by the person " a divine particle " bases of modern model of a universe. It has specially arrived from the Scottish remote place to Geneva personally to be present on the report. And Peter Higgs did not constrain some tears still, after all he waited so much years for this event!
so, it has come true last week, on July, 4th, first persons CERN officially declared that mysterious bozon Higgsa for the sake of whom, actually, and has been constructed Big adronnyj kollajder, at last - that is found. In honour of this event men of science even have urged to name on July, 4th Higgsdependence day by analogy with Independence day, Independence Day of the USA which is marked also on July, 4th.
it is valid, value of this event for fundamental science is difficult for overestimating. The matter is that, despite all obvious scientific achievements of last decades, all our knowledge of principles of a structure of a matter in the Universe so-called Standard physical model was under construction not that that on sand, but practically in air on a hypothesis which nobody could neither prove nor deny.
it is known that all our material world consists of elementary particles, and such elementary particles to a science 12 types and #150 are known; these are 6 quarks both 6 leptons, Dmitry Kazakov, the head of researches on the physicist of elementary particles of Laboratory of theoretical physics of Incorporated institute of nuclear researches in Dubna tells. names, of course, very conditional: quarks these are the particles participating in strong interactions, and protons and neutrons of which nuclear kernels, in turn, are formed consist of them. Leptons, on the contrary, are characterised by weak interaction, and of them consist all known elektrony. In total science knows three types of interactions: in - the first, this strong which allows atoms not to collapse, forming substance. In - the second, this electromagnetic interaction by means of which the Sun passes us the energy. And, at last, the weak interaction responsible for disintegration of atoms thanks to which there is a nuclear reaction to the Sun. And when scientists mathematical methods formulate these interactions, there is a concept of symmetry. It would seem, all is simple, but these laws of symmetry forbid elementary particles to have weight. And here there is a paradox: time symmetry laws forbids particles to have weight whence then it undertakes at all physical bodies, beginning from atoms? Then for an explanation of this paradox also there was an idea of a certain special field say, elementary particles exist not in itself in absolute vacuum, and in not which environment, and this environment has a certain viscosity. And here elementary particles, flying by in this environment, start to co-operate with it, or simply to stick. And the this interaction, the more slowly a particle is stronger it breaks also that bolshej in weight possesses.
it is necessary to notice that the idea about existence of this viscous field has come to mind not to one Peter Higgsu. In the beginning 60 - h the similar hypothesis was voiced by Belgian scientific Rober Bru and Francois Engler, a bit later Americans of Dik Hagen, Dzherald Guralnik and the British Tom Kibbl, independently from each other developed theoretical bases of the mechanism of education of weight. Nevertheless this field has been named in honour of Peter Higgsa, then still to nobody of the known teacher of the Edinburgh university who has stated the theory in the most compressed and made kind.
but how to prove existence of this certain " making heavier " weeding experimentally? How to understand, what it on a broader scale exists, if this field penetrates itself everything, including and experimenters with the most sensitive detectors?! Then - that in physical circles also there was an idea that it is possible to try by means of the accelerator " to pinch off " this field slice that is to arrange " the big explosion " to the contrary. So, according to rules of quantum mechanics, namely the quantum mechanics describes interactions of elementary particles, this " aggravating " The environment foretold by Higgsom, is not than other, as the electromagnetic field consisting of quanta special particles which, according to principles korpuskuljarno - wave dualism, are simultaneously both a particle, and a wave. Quanta of a field of Higgsa have received the name bozonov such is the general name for all particles with which help any interaction between quarks and leptons (in turn is carried out, the name bozonam was given by other physicist Hindu Shatendranat Boze). That is the idea of experiment consisted in the following: if in the modern world any proton consists of the proton and " stuck " to it bozona Higgsa why powerful blow not to break this couple? Then physicists, on idea, should see itself " released " a proton, which without " aggravating " Environments something else will turn to light photon, and, a certain movement, a particle which will turn to other photon, it and will be that bozon. A problem of physicists to understand and fix weight bozona before its transformation to the public that would confirm existence most " aggravating " fields.
publicity and accelerators
the First experiments on revealing bozona Higgsa have begun in the beginning 80 - h on the very first kollajdere SPS, constructed in CERN. Certainly, bozon Higgsa to find then it was not possible, but physicists have proved existence W and Z bozonov carriers of weak interaction which also have been foretold within the limits of Standard model that has called quite defensible hopes to achieve the big results on more powerful equipment. The turn Big elektron - pozitronnogo kollajdera (LEP), constructed in CERN in a valley of lake of Geneva on depth of 100 metres (now just on place LEP works Already big adronnyj kollajder) further has come.
Experiments went 11 years, but the proof of that fact became their practical result that bozon Higgsa cannot possess weight less than 115 gigaelektron - volt on a square of a velocity of light physicists, being based on Einstein`s formulas, often measure weights of particles in energy units, elektron - voltah.
Nevertheless, Dmitry Kazakov, and #150 explains; in last experiments, on the very brink of accelerator possibilities, any not clear events have been fixed, and experiment have decided to continue.
the following race relay race for bozonom had joined Tevatron the powerful ring accelerator - kollajder, located in national accelerating laboratory of Enriko Fermi near to Chicago. Americans for 17 years of work have made many opening, but here bozon Higgsa was imperceptible. On the other hand, thanks to Tevatronu physicists had an understanding of that bozona Higgsa does not exist and on other end of this hypothetical scale of weights with 600 to 130 gigaelektron - volt.
that is there was not investigated only a small range of possible weights from 115 to 130 gigaelektron - volt. But in that is continually that for experiments in this range absolutely special accelerator which could disperse a particle till sublight speed was required. But on it neither electronic, nor proton kollajder were absolutely incapable. It is interesting that many scientists have been assured that the mankind so never and cannot find proofs of this theory. For example, in 2000 two well-known physicists both #150; Stephen Hoking and Gordi Kejn, the director of the Michigan centre of theoretical physics, Have argued for 100 pounds sterling that the particle of Higgsa will be never found in CERN where - or it is still simple for the reason that the accelerating physics cannot overcome this barrier of capacity. Nevertheless, despite all preventions of Hokinga, exactly year later in Geneva building of most powerful of all when - or existing before accelerators and #150 has begun; Big adronnogo kollajdera, become by a call not only to nature laws, but also the mankind.
and here after stolkih years of expectation and vbuhannyh it is literally under the earth of trillions dollars deafening success! The first results on detectors kollaboratsii ATLAS have received last year then during experiment education of a certain new elementary particle with weight 126,5 gigaelektron - volt has been fixed. Disintegration of this particle on two photons has been fixed also that also was entered in frameworks of the theory of Higgsa. Opening, however, did not hurry to publish, being afraid of a discomfiture, cases when quite serious physicists declared opening bozona are in the history already known, without having waited careful check of results of experiments. At last, on June, 22nd this year, in the opening day in CERN scientifically - practical conference on problems of accelerating physics, director CERN for research work Serdzhio Bertolucci has made a sensational recognition: " Misters, probably, we have found bozon Higgsa! " the Information there and then began to filter through the closed doors of laboratories, and here on July, 4th management CERN has decided to lay out all maps on a table, having called a special briefing for journalists with Peter Higgsa`s participation.
Certainly, scientists observe till now some care for example, in official release CERN rather streamline formulation is used: " We observe obvious signs of existence of a new particle in the field of weights about 126 GeV... " But any physicist understands, about what there is a speech.
on a threshold of the new world
It is remarkable that Peter Higgs, being the atheist, immutably is indignant, when newsdealers name it bozon " a divine particle " say, well what mysticism here can be? This loud term " a particle of God " despite all protests of Higgsa, has thought up still in 70 - e years Leon Lederman, the director of accelerating laboratory of that time of Enriko Fermi and the hot supporter of popularisation of scientific knowledge. Calculation of Ledermana was simple: the quantum physics in itself very few people is capable to carry away, but here the idea open a secret of the Creator can to appear on taste as to newsdealers, and managers of the scientific funds allocating grants on researches. Well, the idea has worked, and since then each new stage in searches bozona Higgsa was immutably accompanied by a newspaper sensation it is enough to remember only panic hearings education " Black hole " around Geneva.
but now the idea of Ledermana, seemingly, has already reached the apogee it is especially appreciable if to listen to the Russian TV channels infected with idea innovatsionnosti: say, each opening should be commercialised and placed in the service of economy. So, one of announcers popular business - the country channel has declared: " And now scientists are ready to make these bozony an industrial way by means of this " a divine particle " it will be possible to develop a matter directly from an electricity! "
however a question that will be with physics after opening " divine bozona " stirs not only parkway journalists, but also the most serious scientists.
today we cannot really tell that will be further, the professor of the Californian university John Inkandela heading the command of researchers on detector CMS of the TANK considers. As a matter of fact, we now enter during a new era in the physicist of elementary particles with new problems. Probably, it reminds work of archeologist Howard Carter who has dug out a tomb of Tutanhamona in the Valley of tsars a little. He searched for this place more than 5 years. He at first knew only that such tomb can exist the vague inscription bore to it on other sarcophagus where the name to nobody of the known pharaon was mentioned. Anybody from scientists - Egyptologists did not believe Carter, but Carter continued to dig, while at last it has not found under a layer of sand a door with a name of Tutanhamona. Certainly, it was victory over sceptics. Carter could rest on laurels, but he has not calmed down, while step by step has not dug out all premises of a tomb and has not taken all subjects which have become today by the most brilliant samples of art of Ancient Egypt. And today anybody any more does not remember that dispute on existence of the pharaon with a name of Tutanhamon was the initial reason of excavation. We only have found today a door of this novel world which to us should be studied and understood in any sense.
it is valid, if bozon Higgsa searched for acknowledgement of Standard model its detection puts new questions before a science: time this field really exists, that, leaves, it has not appeared together with elementary particles during the first instants of a Big Bang, and existed even before Universe education? Then whence it has arisen? Or, if to ask on - to another: who has created it?