In nju - jorkskom a museum of modern art MoMA opens an exhibition " Century Of The Child: Growing By Design, 1900 - 2000 " it about design education of children who were born on light in the XX-th century. It is a question of how from young nails inhabitants of the last century joined design not by means of scientific books, and through that material environment in which they were born and in which they were raised by the states, schools, mums and fathers. Many of children who posess the things collected at an exhibition in MoMA, already have died of an old age, but most younger of them now celebrate the 12 - letie.
the exhibition Name is taken in the book Elin Kej (1849 - 1926) " the Century of the child " appeared just in 1900. The Swedish feminist and sotsialistka, become interested in position of children in modern it to Europe, has written how the XX-th century will release the child from oppression of adults. Children of the XX-th century, " citizens of the future " Will receive in the order New Land of the childhood with all its cultural attributes the literature, art, design, it intended. Children will save the world and will release it from former fetters. And anyway they will not be sech, as sek its loving father: not from rage, and for form`s sake and for edification.
as MoMA all - taki an art museum, instead of literary, the story basis about a century of the child is quite material. These are toys, the clothes, furniture, is a photo, posters, cards and a book illustration. Century is divided on some glavok. The first it is history of the new pedagogics developing at the beginning of the century in Europe and in America. To a museum recently has carried: it has received the whole set of the subjects connected with works by Fridriha Frebelja which in the end of a XIX-th century has proved importance of game by specially picked up subjects for education of the child, and at the same time and has invented concept Kindergarten, a kindergarten. Its ideas will develop tens teachers, scientists and self-educated persons, and Montessori`s system will appear most known of them. The beginning of the century is presented in MoMA by things from schools and kindergartens of Glasgow, Budapest, Vienna, Rome, Chicago.
everything is separately shown that did modernisty, architects and the artists, trying to modernise all material world without an exception. The child was for them excellent model nezamutnennogo, the virgin consciousness, opened to all new. It could give much, and at it it was possible for much to learn. Experiments dadaistov or the colour designer of group De Stijl could be quite born this free children`s consciousness. Modernisty, by the way, not only wrote books and did projects for others. They put experiences on own children.
after interest to spirit there is an interest to a body. This part of an exposition is called " Light, Air, Health " Also tells about new concepts of the hygiene, all these children`s sun decks, air baths and pioneer camps of Crimea. The century has made much children have at least ceased to die in such quantity, as during last times when the death of the child in a family was event sad, but ordinary. Now the states which have demanded in the answer the lion`s share, the absolute right to the child were engaged in children`s health. Very important section both #150; children and a policy. The blessing of a material as much as necessary and first of all books and toys fashistkoj Italy and Germany, imperial Japan, China epoch Mao and, of course, the USSR of times of Stalin and Khruschev.
then curators of an exhibition pass by the time of when children become the main consumers, tyrants and motors of consumption for their parents. It begins with American 1960 - h and to the end of the century accepts the most surprising and even wild forms For example, beauty contests for the girls transformed into live glamour dolls, or developments of systems of youth gadgets, it is unique defining now authority of the child on its environment. From now on on toys, clothes and education of children starts to leave hardly probable no more, than on toys of adults.
at an exhibition in MoMA it is clearly visible, as the design of the XX-th century has changed class system of toys which were received by children. If to look at distinctions of things aristocratic and demotic, we will see that eventually the difference is levelled. Porcelain dolls 1900 - h years luxury goods, plastic Barbies, despite domination of collection copies, all - taki a product of weights - a market. Materials change: at the beginning of the century the main things still have a tree, in the middle of the century actively there is a metal, plastic then triumphs and at last again there is a tree, this time as expensive harmless material. Those wooden toys which we without pity threw out in 1950 - h, become the goods for boutiques. Well and the main thing toys show, how the society with their help tries to program children. The elementary example the toy weapon: in the history of the XX-th century there are moments when it almost completely disappears, there are moments when it specially fills all game life of the child to which should take during the nearest time in hands the present rifle.
the last century has created system of special furniture for children. Before last it especially not zamorachivalsja from a cot the child changed for a school school desk and neither that nor other product of the carpenter, as a rule, did not please neither beauty, nor ergonomics. In Scandinavia, in the homeland Elin Kej, there were first projects of the special children`s furniture which authors considered the child not as nedovzroslogo, and as the small person with the requirements and features. Among exhibits the present sculptural composition from kleenoj plywood: Children`s Chair N65, designed in 1935 genius of modern architecture Finn Alvarom Aalto. The children`s furniture becomes simultaneously and a toy so to the end of the century there will be ideas of furniture - a transformer, turning to sports hills and doll small houses.
the system of children`s clothes and #150 in the same way changed; the exhibition gives rather convincing panorama of, how specific " doll " detsko - the adult clothes of the beginning of the century are replaced by dresses specially designed for children. As well as with wooden toys, a retro - models become object exclusive and expensive though the prices for children`s things always and everywhere, except unless the USSR, were adults.
in the XX-th century the majority of European children have got nurseries. During former times the separate room did not rely even the adult. As to children, speech could go at the best about the general bedrooms in boarding schools of private schools or our pioneer camps. The fashion on nurseries has immediately woken appetite of the designers, which steels to develop the interiors intended specially for the child. At an exhibition there are some projects of times of the French functionalism and ar - deko, but examples could be and more. " Children`s space " since then became a classical architectural subject. Children`s playgrounds of the Soviet cities conduct the family tree exactly therefrom.
Elin Kej very much hoped that children will be absolutely others: " The further, the more culture will move young, and they will make a society the best, than it was ". Children have grown under covenants Elin Kej and left from frebelevskih Kindergarten. They built design barracks in Osventsime and projected camp in Siberia, dug in other children in the earth on Belomorkanal and pressed their tanks on the Kursk arch. The world, of course, became more design and even more children`s, but from it at all the best. Looking at toys 1900 - h, you think that gold time remains there. Probably, the same our descendants will think, looking at Dee - Esy of our children.
New York, MoMA, from July, 29th till November, 5th