Russian - one of the East slavonic languages, one of the most widespread by quantity SPK and by quantity of the countries of languages of the world, a national language of Russian people, the basic language of the international dialogue in the central Eurasia, in the Eastern Europe, in the countries of the former Soviet Union, one of United Nations working languages. Is most widespread of slavonic languages and the most numerous language of Europe as geographically, and on number of native speakers as native (though 2 considerable and geographically bo? lshaja the part of Russian language area is in Asia) and one of the most widespread Indo-European languages. Enters into the five of the most translated languages of the world.
the science ABT Russian is called as linguistic Russian philology, or, in abbreviated form, simply Russian philology.
Russian is a state language in following states: Russia, Belarus (along with Belarus), partially recognised South Ossetia (along with Osset) and not recognised Dnestr Moldavian Republic (along with Moldavian and Ukrainian).
Russian is considered an official language of official bodies (in all cases other language or other languages acts as state or the second official) in following states: Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, partially recognised Abkhazia. In a number of administrative units of Moldova, Romania and Ukraine Russian is recognised by one of official languages.
in Tajikistan Russian is recognised under the constitution by "language of international dialogue». In some districts of state of New York on Russian the documents connected with elections should be translated. In Uzbekistan Russian is used in REGISTRY OFFICE bodies.
Russian had the state or official status 2 in a number of the historical states.
Russian is 2 official and a working language in a number of the international organisations, them concern: the United Nations and its some affiliated organisations, OSCE, the CIS, SHOS, EvrAzES, SDA, ODKB, ISO, EEP, Guam.
till 1991 Russian was language of international dialogue of the USSR, de - fakto executing state language functions. It continues to be used in the countries, before the a part USSR, as native 4 bolshej parts of the population and as language of international dialogue. In places of compact residing of emigrants from the countries of the former USSR (Israel, Germany, Canada, the USA, Australia, etc.) Russian-speaking periodicals are issued, radio stations and television channels work, Russian-speaking schools where actively teach Russian (for example, Shevah - Mofet) open. In Israel Russian is studied in the senior classes of some high schools as the second foreign language. In countries of Eastern Europe till the end of 80 - h years of the XX-th century Russian was the basic foreign language at schools.
in sociological research of Institute of Gallup (Gallup, Inc), devoted to the relation to Russian in the Post-Soviet states; 92 % of the population in Belarus, 83 % in Ukraine, 68 % in Kazakhstan and 38 % in Kirghizia have chosen Russian 4 questionnaire filling at poll carrying out. The institute has designated this section of research as "Russian as the Mother Tongue» (Russian as a native language). Verbal constructions of questions and practical complexities of carrying out of polls could bring errors or bias in results.
Under the data published in magazine "Language Monthly» (¹ 3 for 1997), about 300 million persons worldwide at that point in time knew Russian (that put it on 5 - e a place on prevalence), from them 160 million considered its native (7 - e a place in the world). Russian - one of six official languages of the United Nations.
total Russian-speaking in the world according to 1999 - about 167 million, about 110 million persons know Russian as the second.
the first words outside of the Earth have been in Russian said. During piloted flight in a space Yury Gagarin on April, 12th, 1961 at 9:52 at communication check has said: "State of health excellent. I hear you perfectly. Flight passes Gud.» Now Russian informally is language of the international dialogue at piloted flights in a circumterraneous orbit. Colloquial Russian is studied necessarily by all working on MKS cosmonauts.
According to Alexander Arefyev`s published in 2006 in magazine article "Demoskop Weekly», Russian gradually loses the positions both in the world as a whole, and on the post-Soviet territory in particular. As one of the reasons of weakening of positions of Russian the author marks reduction of quantity of Russian. The author considers that if corresponding measures on effective support of Russian and culture in the country, in near and far abroad will not be taken, the tendency of the period 1990 - to be saved 2004 the next 20 years and total number knowing Russian by 2025 can be reduced B4 152 million persons that can put Russian on prevalence degree on the ninth place in the world.
the Electronic database of the register of transfers "Index Translationum» totals more than two million records concerning 500 000 authors and 78 000 publishers in 148 countries of the world; its data bears that Russian is one of the most translated languages in the world. Among languages to which the majority of books, Russian on the seventh place is translated. Among languages from which translate, Russian on the fourth place more often.